Hair loss-Hormonal changes and medical conditions. A variety of conditions can cause permanent or temporary hair loss, including hormonal changes due to pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and thyroid problems.
It is a non progressive neuromuscular disorder causing mild to severe disabilities throughout life.This condition is manifested as a group of persisting qualitative motor disorders which appear in young children due to damage to the brain during delivery or due to some pathological conditions in the intrauterine life.The neuroligical problems are multiple but non progressive in nature. Approximately 2 per 100 live birth is having this problem.This disease is having no hereditary tendency.
Causes of cerebral palsy:
1) Injury to the brain during delivery.
2) As a complication of forceps delivery.
3) Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during delivery.
4) Infections during delivery.
Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:–
The signs and symptoms may not be similar in all babies affected.Depending upon the damage to the brain there may be mild to severe lesions.
Mild cases:- 20% children will have mild disability.
Moderate cases:-50% cases are having moderate disability.The affected children require self help for assisting their impaired ambulation capacity.
Severe cases:-About 30% of the affected children are totally incapacited and bedridden and they allways need care from others.
Abnormal findings in cerebral palsy:-
1,Abnormal neonatal reflexes.
2,Stiffness of all muscles with awkward motion.
3,Extention of extremities on vertical suspension of the infant.
4,Scissoring of the lower limbs due to spasm of the adductor muscles of the thigh.
5,In severe cases the back bend backwards like and arch.
6,May have total or partial paralysis.
7,Arrest of neurological and behavioral developement.
8,Swallowing may be difficult in some cases.
9,Drooling of saliva.
10,Mild to severe mental retardations.
11,Abnormal movements are seen in some cases.
12,Tremors with typical movements.
13,If cerebellum is affected there will be loss of muscle tone with difficulty in walking.
14,Complete or partial loss of hearing.
15,Speech may be affected.
16,Squint and other visual problems may be associated.
17,Convulsions may be seen in some children.
Cerebral palsy is diagnosed by detailed clinical examination and by eliminating other similar diseases like brain tumour, progressive atrophy ect.All investigations like CT scan,MRI and routine investigations are needed to ruleout other diseases.
Management of carebral palsy:–
This includes proper nutrition and personal care. Symptomatic medicines are needed to reduce convulsions and muscle stiffness. Diazepam can reduce spasticity and athetosis.
Dantrolene sodium helps to relax skeletal muscles.
Here massage,exercise, hydrotherapy and ect are needed.Special training is given to train walking,swallowing and talking.The affected children are also trained to hold articles for routine activities.
Moral and social support should be given to these children.They should be send to special schools where special training can be given by trained staff.Mentally retarded children need special training.Depending up on the disabitity special instruments and machines are given for locomotion and to assist their daytoday activities.
This is given by occupational therapists.They train the disabled people to do some suitable works so that these people can have their own income.
Precautions to be taken while combing hair
Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people.Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion.Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person.The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing.To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed.General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair.Regular washing,use of hair oil,proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful.General hints for combing is discussed here.
1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market.The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft,long or short) ,style and convenience.
2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration.Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the hairs.
3) Combing should be gentle .A vigorous combing can increase hairfalling.
4) Do not comb if the hair is wet. First dry it with a towel and then put some oil and gently massage it.Now the combing will be easy and harmless.
5) Should not be combed in the opposite direction of hairs.This can increase hair falling.
6) Vigorous combing in backward direction can produce traction baldness.
7) Frequent combing can damage the scalp and the hair follicles.Those who carry pocket comb use it frequently and make it a habit.Combing two or three times in a day is sufficient.
8) The tooth of the comb should not be sharp and it should not be pressed too tightly on the scalp.
9) Always clean the comb before and after use because hair and dirt deposited in the gap will make combing diffucult and painful.
10) Others comb should not be used.This helps to prevent fungal and bacterial infections.Head lice can also spread from one person to other by sharing the combs.
11) Combing the tangled hair is difficult and painful.Hence use some shampoo for cleaning and after drying put oil and make the hairs free for an easy combing.
EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BLOOD
Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says:
“Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact, so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid.”
It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those who freely indulge in its use. Its effect, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson:
“As it passes through the circulation of the lungs it is exposed to the air, and some little of it, raised into vapor by the natural heat, is thrown off in expiration. If the quantity of it be large, this loss may be considerable, and the odor of the spirit may be detected in the expired breath. If the quantity be small, the loss will be comparatively little, as the spirit will be held in solution by the water in the blood. After it has passed through the lungs, and has been driven by the left heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what is called the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries here extend into very small vessels, which are called arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, which are ultimately to become the great rivers bearing the blood back to the heart. In its passage through this minute circulation the alcohol finds its way to every organ. To this brain, to these muscles, to these secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony structure itself, it moves with the blood. In some of these parts which are not excreting, it remains for a time diffused, and in those parts where there is a large percentage of water, it remains longer than in other parts. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, as the liver and kidneys, it is thrown out or eliminated, and in this way a portion of it is ultimately removed from the body. The rest passing round and round with the circulation, is probably decomposed and carried off in new forms of matter.
“When we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage through the body, from the period of its absorption to that of its elimination, we are the better able to judge what physical changes it induces in the different organs and structures with which it comes in contact. It first reaches the blood; but, as a rule, the quantity of it that enters is insufficient to produce any material effect on that fluid. If, however, the dose taken be poisonous or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, rich as it is in water and it contains seven hundred and ninety parts in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is diffused through this water, and there it comes in contact with the other constituent parts, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is present in the proportion of from two to three parts in a thousand; with the albumen which exists in the proportion of seventy parts; with the salts which yield about ten parts; with the fatty matters; and lastly, with those minute, round bodies which float in myriads in the blood (which were discovered by the Dutch philosopher, Leuwenhock, as one of the first results of microscopical observation, about the middle of the seventeenth century), and which are called the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named bodies are, in fact, cells; their discs, when natural, have a smooth outline, they are depressed in the centre, and they are red in color; the color of the blood being derived from them. We have discovered that there exist other corpuscles or cells in the blood in much smaller quantity, which are called white cells, and these different cells float in the blood-stream within the vessels. The red take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally near the sides of the vessels, moving less quickly. Our business is mainly with the red corpuscles. They perform the most important functions in the economy; they absorb, in great part, the oxygen which we inhale in breathing, and carry it to the extreme tissues of the body; they absorb, in great part, the carbonic acid gas which is produced in the combustion of the body in the extreme tissues, and bring that gas back to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; in short, they are the vital instruments of the circulation.
“With all these parts of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol comes in contact when it enters the blood, and, if it be in sufficient quantity, it produces disturbing action. I have watched this disturbance very carefully on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we can see these floating along during life, and we can also observe them from men who are under the effects of alcohol, by removing a speck of blood, and examining it with the microscope. The action of the alcohol, when it is observable, is varied. It may cause the corpuscles to run too closely together, and to adhere in rolls; it may modify their outline, making the clear-defined, smooth, outer edge irregular or crenate, or even starlike; it may change the round corpuscle into the oval form, or, in very extreme cases, it may produce what I may call a truncated form of corpuscles, in which the change is so great that if we did not trace it through all its stages, we should be puzzled to know whether the object looked at were indeed a blood-cell. All these changes are due to the action of the spirit upon the water contained in the corpuscles; upon the capacity of the spirit to extract water from them. During every stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their function to absorb and fix gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in masses, is great, other difficulties arise, for the cells, united together, pass less easily than they should through the minute vessels of the lungs and of the general circulation, and impede the current, by which local injury is produced.
“A further action upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in excess, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit may act in two different ways, according to the degree in which it affects the water that holds the fibrine in solution. It may fix the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the power of coagulation; or it may extract the water so determinately as to produce coagulation.”
EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE MEMBRANES
The parts which first suffer from alcohol are those expansions of the body which the anatomists call the membranes. “The skin is a membranous envelope. Through the whole of the alimentary surface, from the lips downward, and through the bronchial passages to their minutest ramifications, extends the mucous membrane. The lungs, the heart, the liver, the kidneys are folded in delicate membranes, which can be stripped easily from these parts. If you take a portion of bone, you will find it easy to strip off from it a membranous sheath or covering; if you examine a joint, you will find both the head and the socket lined with membranes. The whole of the intestines are enveloped in a fine membrane called peritoneum . All the muscles are enveloped in membranes, and the fasciculi, or bundles and fibres of muscles, have their membranous sheathing. The brain and spinal cord are enveloped in three membranes; one nearest to themselves, a pure vascular structure, a network of blood-vessels; another, a thin serous structure; a third, a strong fibrous structure. The eyeball is a structure of colloidal humors and membranes, and of nothing else. To complete the description, the minute structures of the vital organs are enrolled in membranous matter.”
These membranes are the filters of the body. “In their absence there could be no building of structure, no solidification of tissue, nor organic mechanism. Passive themselves, they, nevertheless, separate all structures into their respective positions and adaptations.”
In order to make perfectly clear to your mind the action and use of these membranous expansions, and the way in which alcohol deteriorates them, and obstructs their work, we quote again from Dr. Richardson:
“The animal receives from the vegetable world and from the earth the food and drink it requires for its sustenance and motion. It receives colloidal food for its muscles: combustible food for its motion; water for the solution of its various parts; salt for constructive and other physical purposes. These have all to be arranged in the body; and they are arranged by means of the membranous envelopes. Through these membranes nothing can pass that is not, for the time, in a state of aqueous solution, like water or soluble salts. Water passes freely through them, salts pass freely through them, but the constructive matter of the active parts that is colloidal does not pass; it is retained in them until it is chemically decomposed into the soluble type of matter. When we take for our food a portion of animal flesh, it is first resolved, in digestion, into a soluble fluid before it can be absorbed; in the blood it is resolved into the fluid colloidal condition; in the solids it is laid down within the membranes into new structure, and when it has played its part, it is digested again, if I may so say, into a crystalloidal soluble substance, ready to be carried away and replaced by addition of new matter, then it is dialysed or passed through, the membranes into the blood, and is disposed of in the excretions.
“See, then, what an all-important part these membranous structures play in the animal life. Upon their integrity all the silent work of the building up of the body depends. If these membranes are rendered too porous, and let out the colloidal fluids of the blood the albumen, for example the body so circumstanced, dies; dies as if it were slowly bled to death. If, on the contrary, they become condensed or thickened, or loaded with foreign material, then they fail to allow the natural fluids to pass through them. They fail to dialyse, and the result is, either an accumulation of the fluid in a closed cavity, or contraction of the substance inclosed within the membrane, or dryness of membrane in surfaces that ought to be freely lubricated and kept apart. In old age we see the effects of modification of membrane naturally induced; we see the fixed joint, the shrunken and feeble muscle, the dimmed eye, the deaf ear, the enfeebled nervous function.
“It may possibly seem, at first sight, that I am leading immediately away from the subject of the secondary action of alcohol. It is not so. I am leading directly to it. Upon all these membranous structures alcohol exerts a direct perversion of action. It produces in them a thickening, a shrinking and an inactivity that reduces their functional power. That they may work rapidly and equally, they require to be at all times charged with water to saturation. If, into contact with them, any agent is brought that deprives them of water, then is their work interfered with; they cease to separate the saline constituents properly; and, if the evil that is thus started, be allowed to continue, they contract upon their contained matter in whatever organ it may be situated, and condense it.
“In brief, under the prolonged influence of alcohol those changes which take place from it in the blood corpuscles, extend to the other organic parts, involving them in structural deteriorations, which are always dangerous, and are often ultimately fatal.”
CAUSES OF LOW BACK PAIN
Low back pain is a usual symptom amoung the modern civilised people.It affects mainly the middle aged and young adults of both sexes.People who work on the chair with out exercise and those who carry heavy loads regularly are prone to get this complaint.We can hardly find a person who has not suffered from back pain atleast once in life.The causes of low backpain ranges from simple reasons like muscular strain to cancer of spine and hence backache should not be ignored.The pain is felt in lumbar and sacral region and may radiate to nearby sites.
The following are some causes for backache.
1) Backache due to diseases in the back.
2) Backache due to gynaecological problems.
3) Backache due to problems in other parts of the body.
Investigation of a case of backache:
1) Complete blood count.
2) Routine urine examination.
3) Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis.
4) X-ray of the lumbar and sacral region.
5) MRI of the spine.
5) CT scan of abdomen and pelvic region.
6) Examination of rectum,prostate,genito urinary organs.
Treatment of back ache:-
1) Removing the cause for backache.
2) Symptomatic treatement.
3) Back exercises.